20000 Leagues Under The Sea
February 8, 2011 by USA Post
20000 Leagues Under The Sea, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
Is a novel by science-fiction classic French writer Jules Verne published in 1869? It tells the story of Captain Nemo and his submarine Nautilus as seen from the perspective of Professor Pierre Aronnax. The original edition had no illustrations; Hetzel published the first illustrated edition with illustrations by Alphonse de Neuville and Edouard Riou.
The title refers to the distance traveled while under the sea and not to any depth, as 20,000 leagues is 2.7 times the circumference of the earth. The greatest depth mentioned in the book is four miles. A literal translation of the French title would end in the plural “seas”, which implies the “Seven Seas” through which the characters of the novel Voyage. However, the English translations as used at the beginning of “sea”, which means the ocean in general. The following English translations have correctly translated the title as the seas, in the plural instead of the sea, in the singular, but most film adaptations use the older, less accurate versions of public domain.
The name of Captain Nemo is a subtle hint to the Odyssey of Homer, a Greek epic poem. In the Odyssey, Odysseus encounters the Cyclops Polyphemus monstrous in his wanderings. Polyphemus asks Odysseus his name, Odysseus replies that his name is “utis” which translates as “no-man” or “No-body.” In the Latin translation of the Odyssey, that nickname is rendered as “Nemo,” which in Latin translates as “No-Man” or “No-body.” As for Nemo, Odysseus is forced to wander Seas exile (but only for 10 years) and he is tormented by the death of his crew.
The preface of a new English edition  the book has a theory that the name of Nemo was partly inspired by Jules Verne visit Scotland and he comes across Scotland national motto Nemo me impune lacessit, to rightly means “No one attacks me with impunity”, but reinterpreted by Verne as “Nemo attacks with impunity.”
Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury, “Captain Maury” in the book by Jules Verne, an oceanographer from real life that explored the winds, sea currents, and samples of the seabed and mapped all of these things, is mentioned several times in this work of Jules Verne. Jules Verne would have certainly known internationally renowned Matthew Maury and perhaps of French ancestry Maury.
References are made to other French. These include Jean-Francois de Galaup, Comte de La Perouse, a famous explorer who was lost for circumnavigating the globe; Dumont D’Urville, explorer who discovered the remains of the unfortunate vessel count, and Ferdinand de Lesseps Constructor of the French sea level crossing between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, which is known as the Suez Canal and the nephew of the man who was the sole survivor of the expedition of La Perouse. The Nautilus seems to follow the footsteps of the men: She visits the waters where La Perouse was lost, she navigates the waters of Antarctica and became stranded there, as D’Urville ship, the Astrolabe, and it passes through a underwater tunnel Cross Red Sea in the Mediterranean.
The most famous novel, the fight against a school of giant squid, begins when a crewmember opens the hatch of the boat and gets caught by one of the monsters. As it is pulled by the tentacle was caught, he yells “Help!” French. At the beginning of the next chapter on the battle Aronnax states that: “To convey such sights, take the pen of our most famous poet, Victor Hugo, author of The Toilers of the Sea.” Toilers of the Sea contains also an episode where a worker is fighting a giant octopus, the octopus symbolizes where the industrial revolution. It is likely that Verne borrowed the symbol, but he used to refer to the revolutions of 1848 and, in that the first man to speak out against the “monster” and the first to be defeated by it is a French.
In several parts of the book, Captain Nemo is portrayed as a champion of the underdog in the world and the oppressed. In one passage, Captain Nemo is mentioned as providing help for the Greeks to rebel against Ottoman rule during the revolt of Crete 1866-1869, reveals Arronax he had not completely severed all ties with the humanity outside of the Nautilus, after all. In another passage, Nemo takes pity on a poor pearl diver who has to make his Indian dive without the sophisticated combination of diving available to the crew of the submarine, and is doomed to die young because of cumulative effect of diving on his lungs. Nemo goes to him under the water and gives him a pocket full of pearls; the more he could have obtained during the years of his dangerous work.
Some of the ideas of Jules Verne’s submarines are still existing that have been outlined in this book proved to be prophetic, as the high-speed driving and secret submarine nuclear attack today, and (diesel submarines), the need to surface frequently for fresh air. However, Verne had obviously no idea of the problems of water pressure, representing his submarine can dive freely even in the deepest depths of the ocean, where, in reality, he probably would have been instantly crushed by the weight water above, and with men in diving suits able to get out and walk along the deep ocean where they would have probably died quickly because of the physiological effects of pressure and deep breathing does fixed not because of pressure (see the dangers and precautions of diving).
Verne took the name “Nautilus” from one of the first successful submarine, built in 1800 by Robert Fulton, who later invented the first commercially successful steamboat. Fulton submarine was named after the paper nautilus because she had a veil. Three years before writing his novel, Jules Verne has also studied a model of the new French submarine developed the Navy Diver 1867 Universal Exposition, which inspired him for his definition of the Nautilus. The first submarine with nuclear propulsion operational, the U.S. Navy USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was named for the ship fiction of Jules Verne. [Citation needed]
Verne can also be credited to glimpse the possibilities of military submarines, and more precisely the danger they pose to the naval superiority of the British navy, composed of surface ships. The sinking of a ship of fiction by Nemo Nautilus should be adopted, again and again in reality, in the same waters where Verne had predicted, by German submarines in both world wars.
The breathing apparatus used by divers Nautilus is described as a version of untethered underwater breathing apparatus designed by Benoit Rouquayrol Denayrouze and Augustus in 1865. They designed a set of diving with an air ball back, which supplied air through the regulator known demand first. The diver still walked on the seabed and do not swim. This set was called aérophore (Greek for “carrier”). Air pressure tanks, made with the technology of the day could hold 30 atmospheres, and the diver had to be given surface, the reservoir was to bailout. The durations of 6 to 8 hours on one tankful without external supply recorded for all Rouquayrol in the book are greatly exaggerated.
No less important, though rarely commented on, is very bold political vision (indeed, revolutionary for its time) represented by the character of Captain Nemo. As revealed in the book later Verne The Mysterious Island, Captain Nemo is a descendant of Tipu Sultan (a Muslim ruler of Mysore who resisted the British Empire), who took to life in the water after the suppression of the Indian Mutiny of 1857, in which his close family members were killed by the British.
This change was made at the request of the publisher of Jules Verne, Pierre-Jules Hetzel (who is known to be responsible for several important changes in the books of Jules Verne), since in the original master was a mysterious Polish nobleman, to avenge his family who were killed by Russians. They were murdered in retaliation for taking part of the commander of the Polish uprising in January (1863). As real France at the time was allied with Czarist Russia, the target of the wrath of Nemo was changed to an old enemy of France, the British Empire, to avoid political trouble. It is not surprising that Professor Peter Aronnax do not suspect the origins of Nemo, which were later, explained that, in the following book by Jules Verne. What remained in the book since the initial concept is a portrait of Tadeusz KO ciuszko (a Polish national hero, leader of the insurrection against Russia in 1794) with an inscription in Latin: “Finis Poloniae!” (“It’s the end of Poland!”).
The national origin of Captain Nemo has been changed during the most cinematic achievements, in almost all works based on images that follow the book he has been transformed into a European. Omar Sharif depicted Nemo as an Indian in 1973 European miniseries The Mysterious Island. Nemo is also depicted as Indian in a silent film version of the story published in 1916 and later in both the comic and the movie The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen.
Google has reached deep into the sea for his latest Google Doodle, a tribute to Jules Verne interactive and “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea” on Feb. 8, his birthday.
The Google Doodle simulates looking through the portholes of Jules Verne’s famous Nautilus, the submarine of Captain Nemo from “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.” Moving the joystick in different directions will make the Nautilus in those directions, too.
Better yet, according to Google, check out the Doodle on a mobile device with an accelerometer. If a user tilts the device, the Nautilus will go in that direction.
Google Doodler Jennifer Hom describes her love of Jules Verne
In hindsight, I realize that what most fascinated me was the unknown: a creative spark and imaginative exploration that followed. Since then, I became more familiar with his work and still believe that exploration is the essence of the novels of Jules Verne. His stories take readers into a world filled with infinite potential it is in the clouds, on land or under the sea
Born February 8, 1828, Jules Verne died on March 24, 1905. Perhaps best known for his book “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea,” written in 1870, Verne also wrote “A Journey to the Center of the Earth” (1864), and “Around the World in Eighty Days” (1873). All have been turned into movies, some in the television series, with more than one version of each, as well.
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